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Ethiopia’s Tigray Social Cash Transfer Pilot Programme (SCTPP)

Year Programme Began:2011
Implementing Ministry:Tigray Bureau Labour and Social Affairs
Target Group:Labour constrained, ultra-poor female, elderly, or disabled
Conditions:None
Approximate Reach (as of 2015):3,800 households

The Social Cash Transfer Pilot Programme (SCTPP) was launched by the Tigray Bureau of Labour and Social Affairs (BOLSA) with support from the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia in 2011. The goal of the SCTPP was to improve the quality of life of orphans and vulnerable children, elderly and persons with disabilities and to enhance their access to basic services such as healthcare and education. Specific initial objectives included contributing to the reduction of poverty, hunger, and starvation; increasing school enrolment and attendance; improving the health and nutrition of children and generating information on the feasibility in terms of BoLSA’s capacity to implement and administer such a programme.

The SCTPP operated in two districts: rural Hintalo Wajirat and urban Abi Adi, providing timely and predictable monthly cash transfers of ETB 155 (US$ 7.68) to the poorest labour-constrained households in both districts.

Beneficiary households were selected through a community-based targeting process, facilitated by the Community Care Coalitions (CCC), the primary social protection structure at community level supported by social workers. The programme reached 3,767 households (6,716 beneficiaries), of which around 40 per cent had children under 18 and 75 per cent female-headed.

Ethiopia’s Integrated Basic Social Services with Social Cash Transfer (IN-SCT)

Year Programme Began:2015
Implementing Ministry:SNNP & Oromia Bureaus of Labour and Social Affairs, Food Security and Health
Target Group:Pregnant & lactating women & caretakers of malnourished children in chronically food insecure households; labour-constrained households
Conditions:Soft-conditionalities on health, education & protection services
Approximate Reach (as of 2015):Approx. 5,000 households (15,000 beneficiaries)

Based on the promising lessons from the Tigray SCTPP (as described above), in 2015 the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs (MoLSA) initiated the Improved Nutrition through Integrated Basic Social Services and Social Cash Transfer (IN-SCT) pilot programme with the support of UNICEF and Irish Aid. The pilot takes place in four districts of two regions of Ethiopia (SNNPR and Oromiya).

The IN-SCT pilot is integral part of the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) – the flagship programme for Social Protection in Ethiopia – and is based on the integrated systems approach to Social Protection. Besides emphasizing existing Gender and Social Development provisions of the PSNP in its 4th phase through effective capacity building at different levels of PSNP implementation, the IN-SCT implements a comprehensive Case Management System, which links Temporary Direct Support (TDS) clients of the PNSP to essential Maternal and Child Health services as a co-responsibility (or soft condition) of receiving the monthly PSNP cash transfer. TDS clients are pregnant and lactating women, as well as caretakers of malnourished children, who are part of the PSNP Public Works component, but transition to the Permanent Direct Support (PDS) component of the PSNP. The Case Management System is being digitally replicated in an IT-based Management Information System and is being implemented by dedicated Social Workers, who are forming the crucial link between the PSNP clients, the front-line workers at Community level (e.g. Community Care Coalitions, Health Extension Workers and Development Agents), as well as the district-based Government stakeholders. The effective provision of a comprehensive package of nutrition-sensitive interventions to the PSNP clients is part of the overall IN-SCT approach of linking PSNP clients to basic social services.

Through the effective cooperation of different Line Ministries within this pilot (e.g. Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Ministry of Health), the interventions significantly contribute to an improved multi-sectoral collaboration at community, district and federal levels.

Type Title Theme(s) Year Citation
Report Production choices and nutrition related implications in Ethiopia: Baseline report on the IN SCT Pilot Programme (2018) Cash Plus Programmes 2018 Production choices and nutrition related implications in Ethiopia: Baseline report on the IN SCT Pilot Programme (2018)
Report Evaluation of the UNICEF Social Cash Transfers Pilot in SNNPR, Ethiopia: Midline Report (2017) Cash Plus Programmes 2017 Evaluation of the UNICEF Social Cash Transfers Pilot in SNNPR, Ethiopia: Midline Report (2017)
Report Cash 'plus' - Integrated Nutrition and Social Cash Transfer (IN-SCT) Pilot in Ethiopia: perceptions and feedback from clients and service providers (2017) Cash Plus Programmes 2017 Cash 'plus' - Integrated Nutrition and Social Cash Transfer (IN-SCT) Pilot in Ethiopia: perceptions and feedback from clients and service providers (2017)
Journal Article Myth-busting? Confronting Six Common Perceptions about Unconditional Cash Transfers as a Poverty Reduction Strategy in Africa. World Bank Research Observer, 33(2): 259 298 2018 Handa S, Daidone S, Peterman A, Davis B, Pereira A, Palermo T, Yablonski J on behalf of the Transfer Project (2018). Myth-busting? Confronting Six Common Perceptions about Unconditional Cash Transfers as a Poverty Reduction Strategy in Africa. World Bank Research Observer, 33(2): 259 298.
Journal Article The livelihood impacts of cash transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa: Beneficiary perspectives from six countries Gender and Gender-Based Violence 2017

Fisher E, Attah R, Barca V, O’Brien C, Brook S, Holland J, Kardan A, Pavanello S and Pozarny P. (2017). The livelihood impacts of cash transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa: Beneficiary perspectives from six countries. World Development, 99: 299-319.

Journal Article Understanding the linkages between social safety nets and childhood violence: a review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries Gender and Gender-Based Violence 2017

Peterman A, Neijhoft A, Cook S and Palermo T. (2017). Understanding the linkages between social safety nets and childhood violence: a review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries. Health Policy and Planning: 1-23.

Journal Article Does Market Access Mitigate the Impact of Seasonality on Child Growth? Panel Data Evidence from Northern Ethiopia Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2016

Abay K and Hirvonen K. (2016). Does Market Access Mitigate the Impact of Seasonality on Child Growth? Panel Data Evidence from Northern Ethiopia. The Journal of Development Studies, 53(9): 1414-1429.

Book Chapter The Role of the Tigray Pilot Social Cash Transfer Programme and Its Evaluation in the Evolution of the Tigray Social Protection Policy. In From evidence to action: The story of cash transfers and impact evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press 2016 Pearson R, Afaw S, Baschieri A, Birru B, Berhane G, Chaiban T, Davis B, Devereux S, Hoddinott J, Hoel J, Kagin J, Ledlie N, Lemma H, Mahonde D, Pigois R, Pozarny P, Roelen K, Schwab B, Salama P, Sessay I, Taylor JE, Tegebu FN, Tsegay Y and Webb D. (2016). The Role of the Tigray Pilot Social Cash Transfer Programme and Its Evaluation in the Evolution of the Tigray Social Protection Policy. In From evidence to action: The story of cash transfers and impact evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Working and Position Paper Complementarities between social protection and health sector policies: evidence from productive safety net program in Ethiopia Cash Plus Programmes; Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2017

Hirvonen K, Bossuyt A and Pigois R. (2017). Complementarities between social protection and health sector policies: evidence from productive safety net program in Ethiopia. IFPRI Strategy Support Program Working Paper 112.

Working and Position Paper Combined effects and synergies between agriculture and social protection interventions: What is the evidence so far? Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome 2017 Soares FV, Knowles M, Daidone S and Tirivayi N. (2017). Combined effects and synergies between agriculture and social protection interventions: What is the evidence so far? Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Working and Position Paper Myth-busting? Confronting six common perceptions about unconditional cash transfers as a poverty reduction strategy in Africa. Innocenti Working Papers no. 2017-11, UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence 2017 Handa S, Daidone S, Peterman A, Davis B, Pereira A, Palermo T and Yablonski J. (2017). Myth-busting? Confronting six common perceptions about unconditional cash transfers as a poverty reduction strategy in Africa. Innocenti Working Papers no. 2017-11, UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence.
Working and Position Paper Effects of public policy on child labour: Current knowledge, gaps, and implications for program design Education and Child Labour 2017

Dammert A, de Hoop J, Mvukiyehe E and Rosati F. (2017). Effects of public policy on child labour: Current knowledge, gaps, and implications for program design. Policy Research Working Paper 7999. World Bank, Washington DC.

Working and Position Paper Does Market Access Mitigate the Impact of Seasonality on Child Growth? Panel data evidence from northern Ethiopia Resilience and Productive Impacts 2016

Abay K & Hirvonen K (2016). Does Market Access Mitigate the Impact of Seasonality on Child Growth? Panel data evidence from northern Ethiopia, Innocenti Working Papers no. 2016-05, UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, Florence.

Brief 'Cash plus': Linking cash transfers to services and sectors 2018 Roelen K, Prencipe L and Palermo T. (2018). 'Cash plus': Linking cash transfers to services and sectors. Innocenti Research Brief 2018-19. UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence, Italy.
Brief Cash plus in practice: integrating nutrition and access to services in the PSNP in Ethiopia Cash Plus Programmes 2017

UNICEF. (2017). Cash plus in practice: integrating nutrition and access to services in the PSNP in Ethiopia. UNICEF Ethiopia Brief. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Brief The impact of cash transfers on food security Poverty Reduction and Food Security 2016

Hjelm L. (2016). The impact of cash transfers on food security. Transfer Project Research Brief 2016-01. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief The broad range of cash transfer impacts in sub-Saharan Africa: Consumption, Human Capital and Productive Activity Adolescents; Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2014

Davis B and Handa S. (2014). The broad range of cash transfer impacts in sub-Saharan Africa: Consumption, Human Capital and Productive Activity. Transfer Project Research Brief. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief The impacts of the Social Cash Transfer Pilot Programme on community dynamics in Tigray, Ethiopia Poverty Reduction and Food Security 2014

FAO (2014). The impacts of the Social Cash Transfer Pilot Programme on community dynamics in Tigray, Ethiopia. Food and Agriculture of the United Nations, Rome Italy.

Brief Impacts of the Social Cash Transfer Pilot Programme (SCTPP) on the local economy in Ethiopia Poverty Reduction and Food Security 2014

FAO (2014). Impacts of the Social Cash Transfer Pilot Programme (SCTPP) on the local economy in Ethiopia. Food and Agriculture of the United Nations, Rome Italy.

Brief The Cost of Social Cash Transfer Programs in sub-Saharan Africa Programme Evaluation and Design 2013

Plavgo I, de Milliano M and Handa S. (2013).The Cost of Social Cash Transfer Programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Transfer Project Research Brief 2013-01. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief Evaluating the Impact of Cash Transfer Programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. IPC-UNDP Research Brief Programme Evaluation and Design 2012 Davis B, Gaarder M, Handa S and Yablonski J. (2012). Evaluating the Impact of Cash Transfer Programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. IPC-UNDP Research Brief.
Working and Position Paper How to make 'cash plus' work in social protection: linking services and sectors. Innocenti Working Papers no. 2017-10 2017

Roelen K, Devereux S, Abdulai AG, Martorano B, Palermo T and Ragno LP. (2017). How to make ‘cash plus’ work in social protection: linking services and sectors. Innocenti Working Papers no. 2017-10, UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti. Florence, Italy.

Tigray Social Cash Transfer Pilot Programme, Baseline 2012

Tigray Social Cash Transfer Pilot Programme, Follow-up 2014

Ethiopia's Tigray Social Cash Transfer Pilot Programme (TSCTPP) Evaluation

Data Collection
    Years: 2012-2014
    Sample Size: 3,667 individuals (Treatment 1,696, Control 1539, random sample 432)
    Location: Tigray region: 2 districts (woredas): Abi Adi (urban) and Hintalo Wajirat (rural)
Evaluation Design: Mixed methods- Quantitative: Double difference combined with inverse-probability-weighted regression-adjusted estimators. Qualitative: Key Informant Interviews, Focus Group Discussions, Case Studies, and Participatory Rural Appraisal
Key Partners/Implementers:

UNICEF Ethiopia

The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Institute of Development Studies (IDS)

Mekelle University

Funders:

UNICEF

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

HelpAge International

Irish Aid

Reports

Evaluation of the Social Cash Transfers Pilot Programme, Tigray Region, Ethiopia - Baseline Report

Evaluation of the Social Cash Transfers Pilot Programme, Tigray Region, Ethiopia - Endline Report

Qualitative research and analyses of the economic impacts of cash transfer programmes in sub-Saharan Africa: Ethiopia country case study

Local Economy-wide Impact Evaluation (LEWIE) of Ethiopia’s social cash transfer pilot programme

Integrated Basic Social Services with Social Cash Transfer (IN-SCT) Evaluation

Data Collection
    Years: 2016-2018
    Sample Size: 3,420 (at baseline)
    Location: Oromia and SNNP regions
Evaluation Design: Mixed methods - Quantitative (baseline and endline): matching methods; Qualitative (midline): Key Informant Interviews, Focus Group Discussions, and Case Studies
Key Partners/Implementers:

UNICEF Ethiopia

The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Institute of Development Studies (IDS)

Cornell University

Funders:

UNICEF

Irish Aid

Reports

Evaluation of the UNICEF Social Cash Transfers Pilot in SNNPR, Ethiopia - Midline Report

Cash 'plus' - Integrated Nutrition and Social Cash Transfer (IN-SCT) Pilot in Ethiopia: perceptions and feedback from clients and service providers - Operational Report

Production choices and nutrition related implications in Ethiopia: Baseline report on the IN SCT Pilot Programme (2018)