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Zambia’s Child Grant Programme (CGP)

Year Programme Began:2010
Implementing Ministry:Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health
Target Group:Household with a child under five years old in three poor districts"
Conditions:None
Approximate Reach (as of 2015):145,000 households (total for both programmes)

In 2010, Zambia’s Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health (MCDMCH) started the rollout of the CGP in three districts: Kalabo, Kaputa, and Shangombo. These districts have the highest rates of mortality, morbidity, stunting, and wasting among children under age 5. Recipient households currently receive 70 kwacha (ZMW) a month (equivalent to U.S. $11), an amount deemed sufficient by the MCDMCH to purchase one meal a day for everyone in the household for 1 month. The amount is the same regardless of household size. Payments are made every other month through a local pay point manager, and there are no conditions to receiving the money.

According to the MCDMCH, the goal of the CGP is to reduce extreme poverty and the intergenerational transfer of poverty. The objectives of the programme (as specified in the child grant manual) are to: supplement and not replace household income; increase the number of children enrolled in and attending primary school; reduce the rate of mortality and morbidity among children under 5 years old; reduce stunting and wasting among children under 5 years old; increase the number of households owning assets such as livestock; and increase the number of households that have a second meal a day.

In 2014 the Government of Zambia reformed its cash grant system and harmonized existing models into one social cash transfer (SCT) programme with one common set of eligibility criteria. Recipients of the CGP and other programmes (MCTG, Old Age Grant) were gradually re-targeted for the new programme and phased out if they were no longer eligible. The re-targeting occurred at different times across the country, beginning in the second quarter of 2015. In 2017, researchers from the Transfer Project returned to the original CGP evaluation sample for another wave of data collection to understand the longer term effects of the CGP, and to assess the potential for sustained impacts among households who were no longer receiving the transfer.

Multiple Categorical Targeting Grant (MCTG)

Year Programme Began:2011
Implementing Ministry:Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health
Target Group:Poor female- and elderly-headed households with disabled person
Conditions:None
Approximate Reach (as of 2015):145,000 households (total for both programmes)

The MCTG (previously known as Multiple Categorical Grant Program or MCP) was initiated in late 2011 in the districts of Luwingu and Serenje. The MCDMCH chose to start the MCTG in the two districts within Zambia that have some of the highest rates of extreme poverty, thus introducing an element of geographical targeting to the program. These two districts represent some of the most remote locations in Zambia, making them a challenge for providing support services, and are some of the most underprivileged communities in Zambia. As with CGP, recipient households currently receive 70 kwacha (ZMW) a month (equivalent to U.S. $11), regardless of household size. Payments are made every other month through a local pay point manager, and there are no conditions to receiving the money.

Zambia’s Monze social cash transfer (pilot)

Year Programme Began:2007
Implementing Ministry:Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health

The baseline survey for the Monze social cash transfer evaulation was conducted in 2007, and a longitudinal follow-up survey in 2010.

Type Title Theme(s) Year Citation
Journal Article The Impact of a Large-Scale Poverty-Targeted Cash Transfer Program on Intertemporal Choice Resilience and Productive Impacts 2020
Handa, S., Seidenfeld, D., Tembo, G. (2020) The Impact of a Large-Scale Poverty-Targeted Cash Transfer Program on Intertemporal Choice, Economic Development and Cultural Change 2020 69:1485-512
Journal Article Cash Transfers and Climate-resilient development: Evidence from Zambia's Child Grant Programme Resilience and Productive Impacts 2015

Lawlor K, Handa S, Seidenfeld D and the Zambia Cash Transfer Evaluation Team. (2015).Cash Transfers and Climate-resilient development: Evidence from Zambia’s Child Grant Programme,Innocenti Working Papersno. 2015-03, UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, Florence.

Video Do cash transfers help children grow? 2020 Do cash transfers help children grow?
Video How cash transfers enhance patience in Zambia 2019 How cash transfers enhance patience in Zambia
Journal Article Poverty-environment relationships under market heterogeneity: Cash transfers and rural livelihoods in Zambia Resilience and Productive Impacts 2019

Lawlor, K., Handa, S., Davis, B., & Seidenfeld, D. (n.d.).Poverty-environment relationships under market heterogeneity: Cash transfers and rural livelihoods in Zambia.Environment and Development Economics,1-24. doi:10.1017/S1355770X19000305

Journal Article Unconditional cash transfers, risk attitudes and modern inputs demand Resilience and Productive Impacts 2019

Prifti E, Daidone S, Pace N and Davis B. (2019)Unconditional cash transfers, risk attitudes and modern inputs demand.Applied Econometrics, vol. 53, pages 100-118.

Journal Article Can unconditional cash transfers raise long-term living standards? Evidence from Zambia Resilience and Productive Impacts 2018

Handa S, Natali L, Seidenfeld D, Tembo G, Davis B on behalf of the Zambia Cash Transfer Evaluation Study Team. (2018).Can unconditional cash transfers raise long-term living standards? Evidence from Zambia.Journal of Development Economics,133: 42-65.

Journal Article The Social and Economic Impacts of Zambia's Child Grant Program Education and Child Labour 2015

Handa S, Seidenfeld D, David B, Tembo G and the Zambia Cash Transfer Evaluation Team. (2015).The Social and Economic Impacts of Zambia’s Child Grant Program,Journal of Policy Analysis & Management, 35(2): 357-387.

Working and Position Paper Making money work: Unconditional cash transfers allow women to save and re-invest in rural Zambia Gender and Gender-Based Violence; Resilience and Productive Impacts 2016

Natali L, Handa S, Peterman A, Seidenfeld D & Tembo G on behalf of the Zambia Cash Transfer Evaluation Team (2016).Making money work: Unconditional cash transfers allow women to save and re-invest in rural Zambia,Innocenti Working Paperno. 2016-02, UNICEF Office of Research, Florence.

Working and Position Paper Cash for Women's Empowerment? A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Government of Zambia's Child Grant Programme Gender and Gender-Based Violence 2016

Bonilla J, Castro R, Handa S, Nowlin C, Peterman A, Reeves H, & D Seidenfeld on behalf of the CGP Evaluation Team (2016).”Cash for Women’s Empowerment? A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Government of Zambia’s Child Grant Programme.”Innocenti Working Paper No. 2016-01, UNICEF Office of Research, Florence.

Journal Article Peterman A, Palermo T, Handa S and Seidenfeld D on behalf of the Zambia Child Grant Program Evaluation Team. (2017).List randomization for soliciting experience of intimate partner violence: Application to the evaluation of Zambia's unconditional child grant program.Health Economics,0: 1-7. Gender and Gender-Based Violence 2017 Peterman A, Palermo T, Handa S and Seidenfeld D on behalf of the Zambia Child Grant Program Evaluation Team. (2017).List randomization for soliciting experience of intimate partner violence: Application to the evaluation of Zambia's unconditional child grant program.Health Economics,0: 1-7.
Journal Article Cash Transfers and Child Nutrition in Zambia Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2020

Transfer Project (2020). Cash Transfers and Child Nutrition in Zambia. Carolina Population Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Journal Article More evidence on the relationship between cash transfers and child height Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2020

Chakrabarti A, Handa S, Natali L, Seidenfeld D, & Tembo G.(2020).More evidence on the relationship between cash transfers and child height,Journal of Development Effectiveness,DOI:10.1080/19439342.2020.1731568

Journal Article Stuck exchange: Can cash transfers push smallholders out of autarky? Resilience and Productive Impacts 2019

Prifti E, Daidone S, Pace N, & Davis B.(2019).Stuck exchange: Can cash transfers push smallholders out of autarky?The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development,DOI:10.1080/09638199.2019.1702711

Journal Article Do social protection programs foster short-term and long-term migration adaptation strategies? Environment and Development Economics,1-24 2019 Mueller V, Gray C, Handa S, & Seidenfeld D. (2019). Do social protection programs foster short-term and long-term migration adaptation strategies? Environment and Development Economics,1-24.
Journal Article Does money buy happiness? Evidence from an unconditional cash transfer in Zambia Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2016

Natali L, Handa S, Peterman A, Seidenfeld D and Tembo G on behalf of the Zambia Cash Transfer Evaluation Team. (2018). Does money buy happiness? Evidence from an unconditional cash transfer in Zambia. SSM Population Health, 4: 225 235.

Journal Article Cash transfers enable households to cope with agricultural production and price shocks: evidence from Zambia Resilience and Productive Impacts 2017

Lawlor K, Handa S, Seidenfeld D and the Zambia Cash Transfer Evaluation Team. (2017). Cash transfers enable households to cope with agricultural production and price shocks: evidence from Zambia. Journal of Development Studies, 0: 1-18.

Journal Article List randomization for soliciting experience of intimate partner violence: Application to the evaluation of Zambia's unconditional child grant program. Health Economics, 0: 1-7 2017 Peterman A, Palermo T, Handa S and Seidenfeld D on behalf of the Zambia Child Grant Program Evaluation Team. (2017). List randomization for soliciting experience of intimate partner violence: Application to the evaluation of Zambia's unconditional child grant program. Health Economics, 0: 1-7.
Journal Article Cash transfer programmes, weather shocks and household welfare: evidence from a randomised experiment in Zambia Resilience and Productive Impacts 2017

Asfaw S, Carraro A, Davis B, Handa S and Seidenfeld D. (2017). Cash transfer programmes, weather shocks and household welfare: evidence from a randomised experiment in Zambia. Journal of Development Effectiveness, 9(4): 419-442.

Journal Article Learning about labour impacts of cash transfers in Zambia Poverty Reduction and Food Security 2017

Prifti E, Estruch E, Daidone S, Davids B, Van Ufford P, Michelo S, Handa A, Seidenfeld D and Tembo G. (2017). Learning about labour impacts of cash transfers in Zambia. Journal of African Economies: 1-10.

Journal Article Poverty and perceived stress: Evidence from two unconditional cash transfer programs in Zambia Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2017

Hjelm L, Handa S, de Hoop J and Palermo T, on behalf of the Zambia CGP and MCP Evaluation Teams. (2017). Poverty and perceived stress: Evidence from two unconditional cash transfer programs in Zambia.Social Science and Medicine, 117: 110-117.

Journal Article The impact of Zambia's unconditional child grant on schooling and work: results from a large-scale social experiment Education and Child Labour 2016

Handa S, Natali L, Seidenfeld D andTembo G, on behalf of The Zambia Cash Transfer Evaluation Team (2016). The impact of Zambia’s unconditional child grant on schooling and work: results from a large-scale social experiment. Journal of Development Effectiveness, 8(3).

Journal Article Unconditional government social cash transfer in Africa does not increase fertility Gender and Gender-Based Violence 2016

Palermo T, Handa S, Peterman A, Prencipe L andSeidenfeld D, on behalf of the Zambia CGP Evaluation Team (2016). Unconditional government social cash transfer in Africa does not increase fertility. Journal of Population Economics, 29(4): 10831111.

Journal Article Income transfers and maternal health: Evidence from a national randomized social cash transfer program in Zambia Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2015

Handa S, Peterman A, Seidenfeld D and Tembo G (2015). Income transfers and maternal health: Evidence from a national randomized social cash transfer program in Zambia. Health Economics, 25(2): 225-236.

Book Chapter The Role of Impact Evaluation in the Evolution of Zambia's Cash Transfer Programme. In From evidence to action: The story of cash transfers and impact evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press 2016 Quarles van Ufford P, Harland C, Michelo S, Tembo G, Toole K and Wood D. (2016). The Role of Impact Evaluation in the Evolution of Zambia's Cash Transfer Programme. In From evidence to action: The story of cash transfers and impact evaluation in sub-Saharan Africa. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Working and Position Paper Cash Transfers & Child Nutrition in Zambia Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2019

Chakrabarti A, Handa S, Natali L, Seidenfeld D, Tembo G. (2019). Cash Transfers & Child Nutrition in Zambia. Innocenti Working Papers no. 2019-01, UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, Florence.

Working and Position Paper Can Unconditional Cash Transfers Lead to Sustainable Poverty Reduction? Evidence from two government-led programmes in Zambia Poverty Reduction and Food Security 2016

Handa S, Natali L, Seidenfeld D, Tembo G andDavis B. (2016). Can Unconditional Cash Transfers Lead to Sustainable Poverty Reduction? Evidence from two government-led programmes in Zambia. Innocenti Working Papers no. 2016-21, UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, Florence.

Working and Position Paper Unconditional Government Social Cash Transfer in Africa Does not Increase Fertility Gender and Gender-Based Violence; Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2015

Palermo T, Handa S, Peterman A, Prencipe L, Seidenfeld D for Zambia CGP Evaluation Team. (2015). Unconditional Government Social Cash Transfer in Africa Does not Increase Fertility. Innocenti Working Papers No. 2015-09, UNICEF Office of Research, Florence.

Working and Position Paper Are Cash Transfers a Silver Bullet? Evidence from the Zambian Child Grant Adolescents; Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2014

Handa S, Seidenfeld D, Davis B, Tembo G and the Zambia Cash Transfer Evaluation Team (2014). Are Cash Transfers a Silver Bullet? Evidence from the Zambian Child Grant. Innocenti Working Papers No. 2014-08, UNICEF Office of Research, Florence.

Brief The transformative impacts of unconditional cash transfers: evidence from two government programmes in Zambia. Innocenti Research Brief 2017-20 Education and Child Labour 2017

Natali L. (2017). The transformative impacts of unconditional cash transfers: evidence from two government programmes in Zambia. Innocenti Research Brief 2017-20. UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, Florence, Italy.

Brief Cash Transfers and Gender: A closer look at the Zambian Child Grant Programme. Innocenti Research Briefs no. 2016-08 Adolescents 2016

Peterman A,Natali L.(2016). Cash Transfers and Gender: A closer look at the Zambian Child Grant Programme. Innocenti Research Briefs no. 2016-08, UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, Florence.

Brief Prevention, protection, and production: Evidence from the Zambian child grant programme Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2016

Pereira A. (2016). Prevention, protection, and production: Evidence from the Zambian child grant programme. Transfer Project Research Brief 2016-07. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief The Zambian government unconditional social cash transfer programme does not increase fertility Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2016

Hjelm L and Palermo T.(2016). The Zambian government unconditional social cash transfer programme does not increase fertility. Transfer Project Research Brief 2016-06. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief Unconditional government social cash transfers in Africa do not increase fertility Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2016

Palermo, T. and Hjelm, L. (2016). Unconditional government social cash transfers in Africa do not increase fertility. Transfer Project Research Brief 2016-02. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief Measuring Health and Well-being of Young People in the Transfer Project Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2015

Palermo T. (2015). Measuring Health and Well-being of Young People in the Transfer Project. The Transfer Project Research Brief 2015-03. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Journal Article Cash Transfers, Microentrepreneurial Activity, and Child Work: Evidence from Malawi and Zambia Education and Child Labour 2019

de Hoop J, Groppo V, Handa S, on behalf of the Malawi Social Cash Transfer Program and the Zambia Multiple Category Targeted Program study teams (2019). Cash Transfers, Microentrepreneurial Activity, and Child Work: Evidence from Malawi and Zambia.The World Bank Economic Review, lhz004, https://doi.org/10.1093/wber/lhz004

Journal Article Cash Transfers, Early Marriage, and Fertility in Malawi and Zambia Adolescents; Gender and Gender-Based Violence 2018

Dake F, Natali L, Angeles G, de Hoop J, Handa S and Peterman A on behalf of the Malawi Cash Transfer Evaluation Team and the Zambia Cash Transfer Evaluation Team. (2018). Cash Transfers, Early Marriage, and Fertility in Malawi and Zambia. Studies in Family Planning, 49(4): 295-317.

Brief How Do Cash Transfers Affect Child Work and Schooling? Surprising Evidence from Malawi, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia Education and Child Labour 2020

UNICEF Innocenti (2020).How Do Cash Transfers Affect Child Work and Schooling? Surprising Evidence from Malawi, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. UNICEF Innocenti, Florence, Italy.

Journal Article Myth-busting? Confronting Six Common Perceptions about Unconditional Cash Transfers as a Poverty Reduction Strategy in Africa. World Bank Research Observer, 33(2): 259 298 2018 Handa S, Daidone S, Peterman A, Davis B, Pereira A, Palermo T, Yablonski J on behalf of the Transfer Project (2018). Myth-busting? Confronting Six Common Perceptions about Unconditional Cash Transfers as a Poverty Reduction Strategy in Africa. World Bank Research Observer, 33(2): 259 298.
Working and Position Paper Myth-busting? Confronting six common perceptions about unconditional cash transfers as a poverty reduction strategy in Africa. Innocenti Working Papers no. 2017-11, UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence 2017 Handa S, Daidone S, Peterman A, Davis B, Pereira A, Palermo T and Yablonski J. (2017). Myth-busting? Confronting six common perceptions about unconditional cash transfers as a poverty reduction strategy in Africa. Innocenti Working Papers no. 2017-11, UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence.
Brief The impact of cash transfers on food security Poverty Reduction and Food Security 2016

Hjelm L. (2016). The impact of cash transfers on food security. Transfer Project Research Brief 2016-01. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief The broad range of cash transfer impacts in sub-Saharan Africa: Consumption, Human Capital and Productive Activity Adolescents; Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2014

Davis B and Handa S. (2014). The broad range of cash transfer impacts in sub-Saharan Africa: Consumption, Human Capital and Productive Activity. Transfer Project Research Brief. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief The Cost of Social Cash Transfer Programs in sub-Saharan Africa Programme Evaluation and Design 2013

Plavgo I, de Milliano M and Handa S. (2013).The Cost of Social Cash Transfer Programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Transfer Project Research Brief 2013-01. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief Evaluating the Impact of Cash Transfer Programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. IPC-UNDP Research Brief Programme Evaluation and Design 2012 Davis B, Gaarder M, Handa S and Yablonski J. (2012). Evaluating the Impact of Cash Transfer Programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. IPC-UNDP Research Brief.
Journal Article Impact of cash transfer programs on food security and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-country analysis Poverty Reduction and Food Security 2016

Daidone S, Ruvalcaba MA, Prifti E, Handa S, Davis B, Niang O, Pellerano L, Quarles van Ufford P and Seidenfeld D. (2016).Impact of cash transfer programs on food security and nutrition in sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-country analysis. Global Food Security, 11: 72-83.

Journal Article Is Graduation from Social Safety Nets Possible? Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa Poverty Reduction and Food Security; Resilience and Productive Impacts 2015

Daidone, S, Pellerano, L, Handa, S and Davis, B. (2015),Is Graduation from Social Safety Nets Possible? Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa. IDS Bulletin, 46:93102. doi:10.1111/1759-5436.12132

Brief Measurement of interpersonal violence in national social cash transfer evaluations. Transfer Project Research Brief 2016-05 Gender and Gender-Based Violence 2016

Palermo, T.(2016). Measurement of interpersonal violence in national social cash transfer evaluations. Transfer Project Research Brief 2016-05. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief How much do programmes pay? Transfer size in selected national cash transfer programmes in Africa Programme Evaluation and Design 2015

Davis B and Handa S. (2015). How much do programmes pay? Transfer size in selected national cash transfer programmes in Africa. The Transfer Project Research Brief 2015-09. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief The Impact of Social Cash Transfers on Schooling in Africa: An Update from the Transfer Project. The Transfer Project Research Brief 2015-01 Education and Child Labour 2015

Handa S and de Milliano M. (2015). The Impact of Social Cash Transfers on Schooling in Africa: An Update from the Transfer Project. The Transfer Project Research Brief 2015-01. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Journal Article Examination of performance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Short Form 10 among African youth in poor, rural households Adolescents; Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2018

Kilburn K, Prencipe L, Hjelm L, Peterman A, Handa S and Palermo T. (2018). Examination of performance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Short Form 10 among African youth in poor, rural households. BMC Psychiatry, 18(201).

CGP Evaluation

Data Collection
    Years: 2010 - 2015
    Sample Size: 2,515 households with half treatment and half control
    Location: Three Districts: Shangombo, Kaputa, Kalabo
Evaluation Design: Randomized Control Trial (RCT)
Key Partners/Implementers:

AIR – American Institutes for Research

UNC-CH – University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Funders:

UNICEF

DFID –  UK Department for International Development

Irish Aid

Reports

CGP Baseline Report (2011)

CGP 24-Month Impact Report (2013)

CGP 30-Month Impact Report (2014)

CGP 36-Month Impact Report (2014)

CGP 48-Month Impact Report (2016)

CGP: A comprehensive summary of imapcts (2010-2014)

MCTG Evaluation

Data Collection
    Years: 2010 - 2015
    Sample Size: 3,078 households with half treatment and half control
    Location: Two Districts: Luwingu and Serenje
Evaluation Design: Randomized Control Trial (RCT)
Key Partners/Implementers:

AIR – American Institutes for Research

UNC-CH – University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Funders:

UNICEF

DFID –  UK Department for International Development

Irish Aid

Reports

MCTG Baseline Evaluation Report (2012)

MCTG 24-Month Impact Report (2014)

MCTG 36-Mo Impact Report (2016)

MCTG: A comprehensive summary of impacts (2011-2014)

Monze Report

Data Collection
Reports

Monze Follow-up Report (2011)