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Tanzania Conditional Cash Transfer (TASAF III/ PSSN): Youth Well-being and the Transition to Adulthood

Year Programme Began:2012
Implementing Ministry:Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF)
Target Group:Ultra-poor
Conditions:Schooling and health
Approximate Reach (as of 2015):1.1 million households (as of 2016)

The Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN), initiated in 2012, is the flagship social protection programme of Tanzania and is implemented by the Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF). As part of the main programme component, TASAF provides regular cash payments to participating households on a bimonthly basis (including an unconditional base transfer and additional amounts conditional on health check-ups and children’s school attendance). Additional components of the PSSN include livelihoods training and support and a Public Works Program (PWP) to supplement household incomes during the lean season.

TASAF was established in 2000 as part of the Government of Tanzania’s strategy to reduce poverty. Phase I (2000–2005) focused on improving social service delivery; capacity enhancement for communities, including overseeing 1,704 community-run sub-projects such as construction and rehabilitation of health care facilities, schools and other small-scale infrastructure; and a Public Works Program (PWP) component with 113,646 direct beneficiaries. The second Phase (2005–2013) expanded the first stage commitments to address a shortage of social services, capacity enhancement (including 12,347 community sub-projects) and income poverty, including a pilot of community-based conditional cash transfers (CCT) reaching 11,576 households in communities that were strengthened during the first phase. The third phase of TASAF, the PSSN, supports a national social protection programme aimed at putting in place the building blocks of a permanent national social safety system. Key elements of this Project are the CCT programme complemented with public works and livelihoods enhancement. The programme provides cash transfers to poor and vulnerable households in Tanzania conditional on their use of health and education services along with opportunities to earn additional income through public works and livelihood. The objectives of the PSSN include: 1) increase consumption of the extremely poor on a permanent basis, 2) smooth consumption during lean seasons and shocks, 3) invest in human capital, 4) strengthen links with income generating activities, and 5) increase access to improved social services. It aims to improve consumption and human capital accumulation and to reduce the poverty headcount and poverty gap by 5 per cent and 30 per cent, respectively. In 2015, TASAF successfully implemented a massive scale-up of the PSSN from 250,000 households to 1.1 million households (10.5 per cent of the population) in Tanzania.

The Transfer Project, led by UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti and in collaboration with local research partners, has implemented two impact evaluations to understand how the PSSN affects the well-being of adolescents and youth, a key demographic for breaking the inter-generational cycle of poverty.

The first study (2015-2017), conducted in collaboration with REPOA, is an 18-month, mixed methods study to provide evidence on the effects that the PSSN has had on youth well-being and the transition to adulthood. For the study, we conducted two waves of data collection: a baseline in August–October 2015 and an endline from March to May 2017. In both waves of data collection, quantitative and qualitative interviews were conducted with youth who were between the ages of 14 and 28 years at baseline (15–30 years at endline).

The second study (2017-2019), conducted in collaboration with Economic Development Initiatives (EDI), is a 24-month, mixed methods study to provide evidence on the potential for an additional plus component targeted to youth that is layered on top of the PSSN to improve future economic opportunities for youth and facilitate their safe transitions to adulthood. This is based on the recognition that cash alone is rarely sufficient to mitigate all risks and vulnerabilities youth face or to overcome structural barriers to education, delayed marriage and pregnancy, and other safe transitions. The model the intervention follows was informed by a workshop held in Tanzania in February 2016 with government, researchers and development partners.

Type Title Theme(s) Year Citation
Journal Article Do Conditional Cash Transfers Improve Mental Health? Evidence From Tanzania’s Governmental Social Protection Program Adolescents; Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2021

Prencipe, L., Houweling, T., van Lenthe, F., Palermo, T. (2021). “Do Conditional Cash Transfers Improve Mental Health? Evidence From Tanzania’s Governmental Social Protection Program”, Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2021.04.033.

Article Cash Transfers, Public Works and Child Activities: Mixed Methods Evidence from the United Republic of Tanzania Education and Child Labour 2020

de Hoop J; Gichane M; Groppo V; Simmons Zuilkowski S.(2020).Cash Transfers, Public Works and Child Activities: Mixed Methods Evidence from the United Republic of Tanzania.Innocenti Working Papersno. WP 2020-03, UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, Florence

Podcast Tia Palermo (UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti) on'Cash Plus' for adolescents in Tanzania: How it started, where it's going, and why research matters Adolescents; Cash Plus Programmes Tia Palermo (UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti) on'Cash Plus' for adolescents in Tanzania: How it started, where it's going, and why research matters
Report Participant experiences with Tanzania's Productive Social Safety Net 2019 Payment Delays Cash Plus Programmes 2019 Participant experiences with Tanzania's Productive Social Safety Net 2019 Payment Delays
Report A Cash Plus Model for Safe Transitions to a Healthy and Productive Adulthood, Tanzania: Baseline Report (2018) Cash Plus Programmes 2018 A Cash Plus Model for Safe Transitions to a Healthy and Productive Adulthood, Tanzania: Baseline Report (2018)
Brief Tanzania Cash Plus Evaluation Team. Cash Plus: An Adolescent Livelihood, Health and Well-being Intervention as part of Tanzania's Productive Social Safety Net Programme. Innocenti Project Brief. UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence, Italy. Cash Plus Programmes 2018 Tanzania Cash Plus Evaluation Team. Cash Plus: An Adolescent Livelihood, Health and Well-being Intervention as part of Tanzania's Productive Social Safety Net Programme. Innocenti Project Brief. UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence, Italy.
Multimedia Tanzania: Cash Plus Theory of Change Cash Plus Programmes Tanzania: Cash Plus Theory of Change
Brief Ujana Salama: Cash Plus Model on Youth Well-Being and Safe, Healthy Transitions - Midline findings (Swahili Version). Innocenti Research Brief 2020-22 Adolescents 2020

UNICEF Innocenti (2020). Ujana Salama: Cash Plus Model on Youth Well-Being and Safe, Healthy Transitions – Midline findings (English version) (Swahili Version). Innocenti Research Brief 2020-22. UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, Florence, Italy.

Brief Tanzania's Productive Social Safety Net Programme (PSSN) and Its Impacts On Youth. Transfer Project Brief 2018-07 Adolescents 2018

Waidler J on behalf of the Tanzania Cash Transfer Evaluation Team. (2018). Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Net Programme (PSSN) and Its Impacts On Youth. Transfer Project Brief 2018-07. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief Ujana Salama: Cash plus model on youth well-being and safe, healthy transitions. Transfer Project Brief 2018-06 Adolescents 2018

Tanzania Cash Plus Evaluation Team. (2018). Ujana Salama: Cash plus model on youth well-being and safe, healthy transitions. Transfer Project Brief 2018-06. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief PSSN impact evaluation: Youth well-being and the transition to adulthood. Transfer Project Brief 2018-05 Adolescents 2018

Prencipe L. (2018). PSSN impact evaluation: Youth well-being and the transition to adulthood. Transfer Project Brief 2018-05. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief Evaluating impacts of the PSSN on youth transitions to adulthood in Tanzania. Transfer Project Brief 2018-04 Adolescents 2018

Prencipe L. (2018). Evaluating impacts of the PSSN on youth transitions to adulthood in Tanzania. Transfer Project Brief 2018-04. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Journal Article Perspectives of adolescent and young adults on poverty related stressors: A qualitative study in Ghana, Malawi, and Tanzania 2019

Hall B, Garabiles M, de Hoop J, Prencipe L, Pereira A, Palermo T. (2019).Perspectives of adolescent and young adults on poverty related stressors: A qualitative study in Ghana, Malawi, and Tanzania.BMJ Open, 9(10).

Journal Article Enhanced life distress inventory: Development and validation in two African countries Cash Plus Programmes; Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2020

Palermo T, Hall J. B, & Cirillo C on behalf of the Tanzania PSSN Youth Study Evaluation Team, Tanzania Adolescent Cash Plus Study Team, and Ghana LEAP 1000 Evaluation Team. (2020).Enhanced life distress inventory: Development and validation in two African countries,British Journal of Health Psychology,DOI: 10.1111/bjhp.12448

Working and Position Paper Cash Transfers, Public Works and Child Activities: Mixed Methods Evidence from the United Republic of Tanzania.Innocenti Working Papersno. WP 2020-03, UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence 2020 de Hoop J; Gichane M; Groppo V; Simmons Zuilkowski S.(2020).Cash Transfers, Public Works and Child Activities: Mixed Methods Evidence from the United Republic of Tanzania.Innocenti Working Papersno. WP 2020-03, UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence
Brief How Do Cash Transfers Affect Child Work and Schooling? Surprising Evidence from Malawi, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia Education and Child Labour 2020

UNICEF Innocenti (2020).How Do Cash Transfers Affect Child Work and Schooling? Surprising Evidence from Malawi, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. UNICEF Innocenti, Florence, Italy.

Brief Impact of the United Republic of Tanzania's Productive Social Safety Net on Child Labour and Education Cash Plus Programmes 2020

UNICEF Innocenti (2020).Impact of the United Republic of Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Net on Child Labour and Education. UNICEF Innocenti, Florence, Italy.

Brief Ujana Salama: Cash Plus Model on Youth Well-Being and Safe, Healthy Transitions - Midline findings (English version) Adolescents 2020

UNICEF Innocenti (2019). Ujana Salama: Cash Plus Model on Youth Well-Being and Safe, Healthy Transitions – Midline findings. Innocenti Research Brief 2020-22. UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, Florence, Italy.

Journal Article Understanding the linkages between social safety nets and childhood violence: a review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries Gender and Gender-Based Violence 2017

Peterman A, Neijhoft A, Cook S and Palermo T. (2017). Understanding the linkages between social safety nets and childhood violence: a review of the evidence from low- and middle-income countries. Health Policy and Planning: 1-23.

Working and Position Paper Effects of public policy on child labour: Current knowledge, gaps, and implications for program design Education and Child Labour 2017

Dammert A, de Hoop J, Mvukiyehe E and Rosati F. (2017). Effects of public policy on child labour: Current knowledge, gaps, and implications for program design. Policy Research Working Paper 7999. World Bank, Washington DC.

Brief The broad range of cash transfer impacts in sub-Saharan Africa: Consumption, Human Capital and Productive Activity Adolescents; Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2014

Davis B and Handa S. (2014). The broad range of cash transfer impacts in sub-Saharan Africa: Consumption, Human Capital and Productive Activity. Transfer Project Research Brief. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief The Cost of Social Cash Transfer Programs in sub-Saharan Africa Programme Evaluation and Design 2013

Plavgo I, de Milliano M and Handa S. (2013).The Cost of Social Cash Transfer Programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Transfer Project Research Brief 2013-01. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Brief Evaluating the Impact of Cash Transfer Programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. IPC-UNDP Research Brief Programme Evaluation and Design 2012 Davis B, Gaarder M, Handa S and Yablonski J. (2012). Evaluating the Impact of Cash Transfer Programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. IPC-UNDP Research Brief.
Brief Measurement of interpersonal violence in national social cash transfer evaluations. Transfer Project Research Brief 2016-05 Gender and Gender-Based Violence 2016

Palermo, T.(2016). Measurement of interpersonal violence in national social cash transfer evaluations. Transfer Project Research Brief 2016-05. Chapel Hill, NC: Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill.

Journal Article Examination of performance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Short Form 10 among African youth in poor, rural households Adolescents; Health, Nutrition, and Well-Being 2018

Kilburn K, Prencipe L, Hjelm L, Peterman A, Handa S and Palermo T. (2018). Examination of performance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Short Form 10 among African youth in poor, rural households. BMC Psychiatry, 18(201).

Tanzania Conditional Cash Transfer (TASAF III/ PSSN): Youth Well-being and the Transition to Adulthood Evaluation

Data Collection
    Years: 2015, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021
    Sample Size: 1,357 youth (study 1) and 2,458 adolescents (study 2)
    Location: 8 Mainland Districts: Misungwi, Kahama, Kilola, Kisarawe, Handeni, Mbogwe, Itilima, Uyui (study 1), and 4 mainland districts/councils: Rungwe, Busokelo, Mufindi, Mafinga (study 2)
Evaluation Design: Cluster randomized Control Trial
Key Partners/Implementers:

Study 1: UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, REPOA, Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF), UNICEF Tanzania

Study 2: UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, EDI Global, TASAF, TACAIDS, University of Buffalo, UNICEF Tanzania

Funders:

Study 1: Funding for this evaluation has generously been provided by UNICEF Tanzania, UNICEF ESARO, an Anonymous Donor, and Sida through a grant to UNICEF Office of Research—Innocenti, supporting the Transfer Project.

Study 2: Funding for this pilot and evaluation has been provided by Oak Foundation (#OCAY-16-73) and UNICEF. Additional funding for the evaluation was provided by the UK’s Department of International Development (DFID 203529-102) and the Swedish Development Cooperation Agency (Sida G41102), both through a grant to UNICEF Office of Research—Innocenti supporting the Transfer Project. Additional funding for implementation activities was provided by Irish Aid. Funding for a round of mobile surveys (in 2020) to understand impacts of COVID-19 on adolescent/youth health and economic well-being was funded by UNICEF Tanzania and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit GIZ GmbH under the umbrella of the P4H Health Financing Network. Funding for a fourth round of follow-up data collection (in 2021) is being provided by the UK’s Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office through a grant to UNICEF Office of Research—Innocenti.

Reports

PSSN Youth Baseline Report (2018)

PSSN Youth Endline Report (2018)

Adolescent Cash Plus Baseline Report (2018)

Adolescent Cash Plus Midline Report (2020)

Participant experiences with Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Net 2019 Payment Delays (2020)